american literature

I need 3 responses to each TOPIC around 150 words for each, 450 words overall . Does not need to be in an essay format.

Cotton Mather (Indian Powaws and Witchcraft) seen the Indians having knowledge and worshiping a higher power, such as a God that the European acknowledge. They would pass down traditions to their children, but not all would have the desire to believe. Mather had the idea that God, all mighty one, was not the only spirit that was recognized in this tribe. He viewed that the Powaws had a connection with an infernal spirit, that would bring satanic influence. Mather recognized that the evil spirit would have an influence over them, to do things that seemed demonic today, which now is defined as witchcraft. The typical performances of the devil entering the body, influencing the body to torment, and wandering aimless into the night would be activities found in this situation. This tribe can be compared as the bad Indians, by excepting evil into their community.

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John Smith experience could have been moments of uncertainty. His story goes from being certain of death to feeling like his life had been spared by the Powhatan tribe in a type of ceremony ritual. It seems hard to read the intentions of the Indians in Smith point of view, at first. Smith and his fellow colonist had been on the verge of dying from lack of food, but were saved by the Indians after making some trades.

Mary Rowlandson, A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, can be expressed as the truest­ description of the native people during this time era. What gives evidence of this being the truest detail of the natives is her experience of the death of her child and others. This is something that was physically and sociologically traumatic that cannot be forgotten, even in the small details. She had experienced destructive capabilities from the Indians, such as setting fire to houses kidnapping, and murdered. The Indians held Rowlandson and her child against their will, which ultimately cause the child to die. Over several days, she witnesses the horrible and evil capabilities that a human can do to others, and how she relied on god as her salvation.

(respond with 150 words to
Why do you think these writers (Mary Rowlandson, John Smith, and Cotton Mather) had such differing opinions and perceptions of Native Americans?
Please note possible indicators like culture, education, nationality, ideology, etc.
Were you surprised that three people from the same time period could differ so much about the same topic? Why or why not?)


Mary Rowlandson first described the Native Americans as ravenous beasts while they took her from her home. She grew up being taught that the Native Americans were awful and that if they are about to take you captive you should try to be killed first. When she was travel injured with her sick child the one Native American that put her on his horse and let her ride could see that she was struggling and needed some sympathy. In the end, she almost seemed glad that everything happened to her. She lived a life of comfort and everything was easy, but after she was taken she new would real trials and tribulations were. Cotton Mather described the Native form of religion as witchcraft, which in that age would get you burned at the stake. He said that they would do their rituals into a fire and pray for whatever mischief that they desired to come true. St. John de Crevecoeur had an interesting outlook on the new land. He saw it as a melting pot of different cultures and places for people who didn’t really have a home. Anyone could come to America and make a life. He was also very friendly with the Native Americans, when he met them in the woods while they were hunting he shared brandy with them and enjoyed supper as well. While his friend, Mr. P. R, first wanted to attack them when they brought him gifts, he later found they had good intentions.

In St. John de Crevecoeur’s documentation of life in America, he described the new found land as a place for all people. It was for those that were left out in the cold in Europe to venture to and make a new life. They could move to America and start new. There was plenty of land here and plenty of resources for everyone. Many different people we able to come together and live peacefully. This is how America today became so diverse. We became the land of opportunity from the get-go. This is what started to shape the American culture at the beginning of our history. The one thing that he noticed separated people was their religion. He was able to tell by the outside of the home what religion they were and each religion kind of stayed to their own little towns. They all flocked together and lived and worked together. This isn’t a bad thing, they found their common ground and used that to unite themselves in their communities. We still see to this day that some communities are centered around their churches. I grew up in a small town that had one main church and that was where all the town events were held and the one time in the week that the community would get together in a peaceful setting. The outlook on the Native Americans seemed to be different between people, some learned to live with them, even befriending them, while others stuck to the notions that they were savages.

(respond with 150 words with substantive, insightful, and further discuss or explore the discussions)


What does it mean to be an American? St. John de Crevecoeur explains America was an asylum for all. The food was plentiful, and the land was far as the eyes can see. The fresh start of life, even in the wilderness, was better than life than under the kingdom rule. Crevecoeur wrote, “Men are like plants; the goodness and flavour of the fruit proceeds from the peculiar soil and exposition in which they grow” (Crevecoeur, Letter III). His understanding was that America provided a better way of life because of the opportunities it presented. Additionally, with the growth of population came different trades and expansions. The author’s feeling of freedom from tyranny, and everyone can set a path for their destiny.

Crevecoeur emerged his feelings into his writings about his views of a new start. The risk of life and heritage to cross dangerous seas for an unknown land was worth it to many. The idea of a land that free and diverse and full of opportunities. Many served as servants before coming to the new world. Now they live as the master of whom they served. Hunting became a necessary skill along with craftmanship. Religion was no longer a deciding factor for choices made. The new generation of Americans was leaving the foundations of their parents. He wondered if different cultures married what religion will be understood. The difference between Crevecoeur time and now is that America is truly diversified.

(respond with 150 words with substantive, insightful, and further discuss or explore the discussions)

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