Theorist Robert Plutchik proposed that the best way to understand emotion was to conceptualize them as existing in a three-dimensional figure he call the emotion
2. What is an explicit agreement that thoroughly explains the consequences of several behaviors, as well as expectations of the client and the therapist.
A. treatment provis
B. behavioral contract
C. Contingent agreement
D. token economy
3. What strategy is that strategy that helps a person reduce or minimize the effects of stressors?
4. Dr. Zenkman believes that as a therapist his most effective role is being an advocate of his client’s road to psychological wellness. He feels that his years of training in psychology are secondary to his client’s ability to accept himself, see himself honestly, and utilize his own skills and abilities. Dr. Zenkman would most likely describe himself as a what therapist.
5. What therapy is a type of therapy that is led by a therapist and involves a group of clients experiencing psychological disorders
6. Cognitive what, an important part of most cognitive techniques, requires the therapist to identify clients automatic assumptions and irrational beliefs, then teach the client to identify these patterns on their own. After the unhealthy thinking patterns are identified, the can then be replaced with realistic, positive, and optimistic thought processes.
7. What refers to a client’s attempts to avoid doing therapeutic work. It may appear as “ forgetting” to show up for a session or refusing to discuss certain topics that are particularly sensitive or threatening.
8. While having psychotherapy with her analyst, Beatrice suddenly got very upset. “You know Danny, I really hate it when you talk down to me we are having a conversation. It is very insulting to my intelligence.” Strangely, Beatrice often feels that her husband talks down to her as well. This instance of directing her feelings at her husband toward her therapist is an example of
D. Reaction formation
9. The principles of feeling good about ourselves, and feeling accepted and approved of by other underlies person-centered therapy, which was developed by
B. Rollo May
C. Carl Rogers
D. Alfred Adler
10. What is the main difference between a clinical psychologist and a counseling psychologist?
A. A clinical psychologist and counseling psychologist have similar training backgrounds, but a counseling psychologist’s emphasis is on counseling while a clinical psychologist combines research and clinical practice.
B. A clinical psychologist has the training to prescribe medications, while a counseling psychologist does not.
C. A clinical psychologist works in private practice, where a counseling psychologist works in a group practice or in a hospital.
D. A counseling psychologist has a master’s degree, while a clinical psychologist holds a doctorate.
11. Recent research has suggested that there is a relation between the use of antidepressant medication and suicidal action in
12. What do Lithium and ECT have in common?
A.They are both administered by a psychologist and not by a psychiatrist.
B.They are both used to treat the symptoms of major depressive disorder.
C.The exact mechanism by which the treatment works is not understood in either case
D. They are both used to treat the symptoms of bipolar disorder.
13. Which of the following is not one of the cluster of personality disorders?
A…Odd and Eccentric personality disorders
B…Addictive or Dependent personality disorder
C…Dramatic and Erratic personality disorders
D…Anxious and fearful personality disorders
14. From the middle ages right up the 17th century ( and beyond, in some cultures), people with mental disorders were considered to be
A..Possessed by the devil or evil spirits.
B.. Spiritually enlightened and in touch with god because of their unusual psychic visions.
C..Physically ill and in need of treatment, because mental illness was not distinguished from physical illness.
D..In need of education, because mental illness simply reflected a lack of basic knowledge of the real world.
15. A what is a persistent false belief.
16. Keith often hears voices that tell him that he is a very bad person. Although he strains and struggles to “ hear” where these voices are coming from, there are in fact no voices to hear. They are originating inside of his mind, and he experiences them as sensory events. Keith is having a symptom of schizophrenia call an
17. People with what personality disorder often demonstrate a complete lack of morality or conscience by the age of 15 years, and they may engage in illegal, manipulative behavior that hurts others or destroys property. This particular disorder is diagnosed in males three to six times as often as females.
18.What are persistent, irrational fears of specific objects, activities, or situations.
19. What disorder is a mood disorder characterized by alternating episodes of depressed and manic states.
20. Culture refers to the need to consider the individual characteristic of a culture in which a person with disorder was raised in order to diagnose and treat the disorder.
21. A clinician using the what approach looks for physical problems as the root cause of psychological disorders, including brain abnormalities, biochemical processes, or hereditary factors.
22. The basic premise behind the what approach is that thought processes contribute to our understanding of reality, and thus treatment would focus on identifying and revising those thought processes.
23. Which of the following is one of the greatest strengths of the social cognitive perspective of personality?
A.. It recognizes that the five stages of psychosexual development can, in fact be progressed through without fixation, struggle, or strife.
B.. It suggests that the genetic limitations with which we are born can be overcome.
C..It offers hope to each human being that self-actualization is a reasonable and attainable goal.
D.. It offers strategies for a person to improve his or her own life as it recognizes the importance of the individual in the construction of his or her own reality.
24. Britney is studying psychological disorders, including their symptoms, how they are diagnosed and how they might be treated. Britney is most likely taking which of the following college classes.
Why, according to psychiatrist Thomas Szasz, are people who are labeled as being mentally ill “locked away?”
a. Simply because they behave differently than most other people.
b. Because they are perceived as posing a threat to society.
c. Because they are not able to make any real substantive contribution to society.
d. Simply because society needs a scapegoat, and the more “mentally ill” people we lock up, the more satisfied we are with our own lives.
26.. When Maria was born, her 5-year old sister became intensely jealous of all of the attention that was directed to the baby. She tried to be a good big sister, but as each day went on she became more and more resentful of the new sister. Maria, who had long-since been toilet trained, suddenly began wetting her bed again. A psychodynamic theorist would explain this as an example of the defense mechanism called __________.
Which theorist introduced the concepts of the collective unconscious and archetypes?
a. Sigmund Freud
b. Carl Jung
c. Karl Menninger
d. Alfred Adler
28. In the movie “Girl, Interrupted,” Susanna Kaysen was diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. In one particularly riveting scene, she gives a dialogue about how she is uncertain who she is, who she wants to be, and where she wants to go with her life. From a humanistic perspective, Susanna is having difficulty determining her __________.
b. self theory
c. self regard
d. self defenses
29. Larika’s friends tried to get her to go out on Friday night, but she simply refused. “I have so much studying to do, and the house is a mess, and I really want to get my laundry done so I don’t have to worry about it this weekend,” she protested. Her friends, disappointed that Larika’s __________ was preventing her from going out and having fun, had to hit the town without her!
30. If the id operates according to the pleasure principle, then the ego operates according to the __________ principle.
31. How do genes influence our personality? One model that attempts to explain this relationship says that genes, in fact, influence our __________ – the characteristics and traits with which we are born – and those in turn influence the way we behave.
b. developmental schedule
d. psychosocial hallmarks
32. For what purpose was the MMPI originally developed?
a. To identify children with learning disabilities
b. To identify individuals with emotional disorders
c. To provide employee screenings
d. To determine college placements
33. Which researchers popularized the “big five” theory of personality?
a. Eysenck and Cattell
b. Costa and McCrae
c. Gray and Hall
d. Allport and Odbert
34. The __________ system is a part of the brain that stimulates approach behavior in response to the anticipation of a reward.
a. reticular activating
b. cerebellar inhibition
c. medullary mediating
d. behavioral activating
35. A __________ theory states that a set of meaningful and distinct personality dimensions can be used to describe how people differ from one another.
36. The __________ response consists of reduced muscle tension, cortical activity, heart rate, breathing rate, and blood pressure.
37. In __________-focused coping, an individual will attempt to alleviate stress by avoiding the stressor and soothing stress-related emotions.
38. Have you ever heard someone say “I’ll jump off that bridge when I come to it?” This refers to a person who does not want to deal with a problem until that problem needs to be dealt with. On the other hand, people who engage in __________ attempt to foresee stressors before they occur or before they get too serious, and take steps to prevent them before they are huge problems.
a. rational coping
b. repressive coping
c. anticipatory coping
d. emotion-focused coping
39. The Tsunami in Indonesia, the devastation of Hurricane Katrina, and the events of September 11, 2001 are all examples of __________.
40. Orlando has been having difficulties at work for the past several months. As the stress has increased, he has slowly been spending less and less time with his colleagues, staying in his office for lunch instead of socializing in the lunchroom. He also tends to use his sick days more readily when he anticipates that there is going to be an issue or a problem at work that day. Orlando is demonstrating which of the following unhealthy reactions to the stress at his job?
41. If you come home from work and find your spouse in a particular bad mood, the chameleon effect suggests that when of the is most likely to happen?
A.You are likely to turn around and walk out the door because this effect suggests that we avoid people who are experiencing negative mood s
B.. your spouse will only cheering up after her mood has diminished, because this effect suggests that positive mood are shard, but negative mood are”given”
C.. you are likely to start getting into a bad mood yourself.
D.. Your spouse is going to immediately cheer up because someone who is not in a bad mood is in their vicinity.
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