1. Distinguish between conducting and respiratory zone structures. Give examples. 2. Describe the makeup of the respiratory membrane, and relate structure to function. 3. Explain the functional importance of the partial vacuum that exists in the intrapleural space. 4. Relate Boyle’s law to events of inspiration and expiration. 5. Describe the physical factors that influence pulmonary ventilation. 6. State and explain Dalton’s law of partial pressures and Henry’s law. 7. Describe how atmospheric and alveolar air differ in composition and explain these differences. 8. Relate Dalton’s and Henry’s laws to events of external and internal respiration. Specifically, list the factors that influence the gas exchange during these two events. 9. Compare and contrast the influences of arterial pH, arterial partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide, lung reflexes, volition, and emotions on respiratory rate and depth. 10. Compare the causes and consequences of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, tuberculosis, and lung cancer. 11. CO2 is a byproduct of cellular respiration. The more glucose consumed and ATP made, the more CO2 will be made and the more that will be removed from the body. Use your text as a guide and explain what happens to CO2 as it leaves a systemic cell and enters a red blood cell. Be specific in terms of: 1. What chemical reactions take place (name the reactants and products for each step)? 2. How is CO2 transported in the blood (what form or forms)? 3. What are the chemical reactions that take place when CO2 is offloaded in the lungs? 12. Increasing the pressure on a gas above a liquid: Group of answer choices A. Decreases the solubility of other gases as they come into contact with the liquid B. Increases the volume of the container the liquid is in C. Increases its ability to be dissolved in the liquid D. Decreases its ability to be dissolved in a liquid 13. According to Dalton’s law, the pressure of the gasses in a mixture is equal to: Group of answer choices A. The sum of each individual gas in the mixture B. The pressure that would be exerted regardless of container volume C. The pressure that would be exerted regardless of temperature D. The sum of the gas in greatest quantity added to the gas in least quantity 14. CO2 + H2O <-> ???? <-> HCO3- + H+ What is the missing part of this equation? Group of answer choices A. Hydrochloric acid B. Bicarbonate C. Calcium Chloride D. Carbonic acid 15. The loading of oxygen onto a RBC in the pulmonary capillary is driven by: Group of answer choices A. The low pressure of the oxygen gas in the alveoli B. The concentration difference between the alveoli Oxygen and the Oxygen concentration of teh RBC as it enters the capillary bed C. The affinity of HCO3- for hemoglobin D. The off loading of CO2 16. According to Boyle’s law, as the volume inside a container increases, the pressure ___________. Group of answer choices A. Initially decreases then it increases B. Increases C. Decreases D. Initially increases then it decreases 17. Oxygen transported from the lungs to the tissue cells of the body, and carbon dioxide is transported from the tissue cells to the lungs describes: A. External respiration B. Pulmonary ventilation C. Transport of respiratory gases D. Internal respiration 18. The trachea has all three layers common to tubular body organs including the mucosa, submucosa, adventitia and additional layer of: Group of answer choices A. Fibrocartilage B. Reticular connective tissue C. Elastic cartilage D. Hyaline cartilage 19. The total amount of air that can be inspired after a normal tidal volume expiration is the: Group of answer choices A. Functional residual capacity B. Inspiratory capacity C. Total lung capacity D. Vital capacity 20. Which of the following is not one of the widely accepted explanation for the abrupt increase in ventilation that occurs as exercise begins? Group of answer choices A. Psychological stimuli B. Excitatory impulses reaching respiratory centers from proprioceptors in moving muscles, tendons and joints C. Emotional stimuli D. Simultaneous cortical motor activation of skeletal muscles and respiratory centers
Anatomy and physiology
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