Answer all questions and provide rationale for your answer

1. Which of the following is (are) among the criteria for making causal inferences: provide rationale

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Predictive value negative
Consistency of association in several studies
Strength of association
Both b and c
None of the above

2. A random sample of middle age sedentary males was selected from four census tracts, and were randomly assigned to either an exercise group or no exercise group. Both groups were observed semiannually for any difference in incidence of coronary heart disease.

What type of study (study design) you would assign to this information? Provide rationale.

a. Case-control study
b. Concurrent cohort study
c. Non-concurrent cohort study

d. Cross-sectional study
e. Experimental study

3. Several studies have found that approximately 89% of cases of lung cancer are due to cigarette smoking. This measure is an example of: (provide rationale)

a. An incidence rate
b. A relative risk
c. A prevalence risk
d. A proportionate mortality ratio

e. An attributable risk

4. What type of study design is considered to be the ‘gold standard’ in assessing causality? Provide rationale.

a. Cohort

b. Case-control

c. Ecological

d. Experimental

5. Which of the following is a criterion for making causal inferences: provide rationale.

Consistency with existing knowledge
Relative risk
Predictive value
None of the above

6. The extent to which a specific health care treatment, service, procedure, program, or other intervention produces a beneficial result under ideal controlled conditions is its: (provide rationale)

a. Effectiveness
b. Effect modification
c. Efficiency

d. Efficacy
e. None of the above

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